As the seminar session draws to a close, the faculty return to the participant who initially presented the case and ask if the discussion was helpful and how it informed his or her plans for action in this or future cases. In doing so it is often useful to restate the original question (see Presentation of a Challenging Case and Framing the Question).

During the summary, the faculty retrace the steps in reasoning taken by the group. This summary helps to illustrate how the group framed the right question in the complex situation, the important areas the group considered, including the personal aspects of the challenge, and the strategic plans for action that were formulated.

The faculty also summarize the major teaching points, including factors and suggestions to consider when analyzing and managing similar cases, and the rationale for each. Learners appreciate these points, particularly after working through their own reasoning.

Image Credit: Foucault Pendulum Animated by Dominique Toussaint 2006