To date we have used simple self-reported measures. We have found retrospective pre-post measures1,2 of confidence in various tasks to be the most convenient. The basic structure is a survey that includes descriptions of specific tasks or skills and a rating of ability before and after the educational event.

Here is an example item from the evaluation form we use for our fellows’ seminar: 

A detailed description of outcomes for the fellows’ seminar is available in our article:

Leadership: "They never taught me this in medical school".  Frugé E, Mahoney DH, Poplack DG, Horowitz ME. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2010 May;32(4):304-8.


  1. Skeff KM, Stratos GA, Bergen MR. Evaluation of a medical faculty development program: A comparison of traditional pre/post and retrospective pre/post self-assessment ratings. Evaluation and the Health Professions 1992; 5(3):350-366.
  2. Geldhof GJ, Warner DA, Finders JK, Thogmartin AA, Clark A, Longway KA. Revisiting the utility of retrospective pre-post designs: The need for mixed-method pilot data. Evaluation and Program Planning. 2018; 70: 83-89.