Conditions We Treat


Bone Cysts


Aneurysmal Bone Cyst
Benign blood-filled cyst most commonly identified during the teenage years. Aneurysmal bone cysts can deform and weaken adjacent areas of normal bone increasing the risk of fractures and can recur even after they are removed. 

Selected publications by our Texas Children’s Hospital orthopedic surgery team:

  • Katz M, and Dormans JP: Recurrent Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of the Distal Phalanx of a Child.  Orthopaedics, Volume 20, Number 5, Pages 463-466, May 1997.

  • Dormans JP and Pill S: Fractures through bone cysts:  Unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous cortical defects, and nonossifying fibromas.  Instructional Course Lecture, Volume 51, Section 10 (Tumors), Chapter 48, Pages 457- 468, The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2002.

  • Dormans JP, Hanna BG, Johnston DR and Khurana JS: Surgical treatment and recurrence rate of aneurismal bone cysts in children.  Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 421:205-211, (MS number 2043), April 2004.

  • Garg S, Mehta S, Dormans JP:  “Modern surgical treatment of primary aneurismal bone cyst of the spine in children and adolescents” Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Volume 25, Number 3, pages 387-392, May/June 2005.  MS# 04-6243.

  • Dormans J, Chan G, Arkader A, Kleposki R. Primary Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of the Epiphysis. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010 Jan.


Unicameral Bone Cyst
Benign cyst (fluid filled cavity) that primarily occurs in the long bones (the arm and thigh) of children and adolescents. These cysts may be asymptomatic and are often an accidental discovery on x-ray. 

Selected publications by our Texas Children’s Hospital orthopedic surgery team:

  • Glasser DL, Dormans JP, Stanton RP and Davidson RS: “Surgical management of calcaneal unicameral bone cysts.” Clin Orthop. 1999 Mar;(360):231-7
     
  • Sullivan RJ, Meyer JS, Dormans JP, and Davidson RS: “Diagnosing Aneurysmal Bone Cysts with Magnetic Resonance Imaging.” Clin Orthop.  1999 Sep;(366):186-90
     
  • Dormans JP and Dormans NJ:  Use of percutaneous intramedullary decompression and medical-grade calcium sulfate pellets for treatment of unicameral bone cysts in children.  Orthopaedics Volume 27, Number 1/supplement, S137-139, January 2004.
     
  • Dormans JP, Sankar WN, Moroz L, Erol B:  Percutaneous Intramedullary Decompression, Curettage, and Grafting With Medical-Grade Calcium Sulfate Pellets for Unicameral Bone Cysts in Children:  A New Minimally Invasive Technique.  J Ped Orthop.  2005; 25(6):804-811.
     
  • Dormans J, Mik G, Manteghi A, Arkader A. Intermediate to Long-term Results of a Minimally Invasive Technique for the Treatment of Unicameral Bone Cysts. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. Clin Orthop Relat Res. Volume 467, Issue 11 (2009), Page 2949.

Bone Tumors


Adamantinoma
Rare malignant tumor that is most commonly identified in the lower extremity (especially the tibia or “shin” bone). Adamantinomas typically present in the young adults, but may affect all age groups. 


Chondroblastoma
Rare benign tumor that resembles cartilage. Chondroblastomas are most frequently identified at the ends of long bones (thigh and upper arm) and are typically diagnosed in males less than 25 years old.

Selected publications by our Texas Children’s Hospital orthopedic surgery team:

  • De Mattos CBR, Angsanuntsukh C., Arkader A., Dormans JP. Chondroblastoma and Chondromyxoid Fibroma. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.  April 2013 21: 225-233

Chondromyxoid Fibroma 
Rare, benign, and slow growing tumor usually found in the lower extremity. Chondromyxoid Fibromas arise from connective tissue that normally functions to produce cartilage and primarily affects younger patients.


Chondrosarcoma 
Malignant tumor comprised of cancerous cells that produce cartilage. Chondrosarcomas are the second most common type of primary bone cancer (originating from bone) and typically affects cartilage in the extremities or pelvis. 


Desmoplastic Fibroma
Extremely rare benign tumor that typically occurs in patients less than 30.  This slowly progressing tumor is comprised of cells that produce the connective tissue collagen.  Desmoplastic Fibromas are most commonly found in the jaw, but have also been identified in the femur and pelvis. 


Enchondromas
Benign tumor that forms in cartilage (most commonly cartilage lining the inside of bones). Enchondromas are the most common type of hand tumor, but can be found throughout the upper and lower extremities.


Ewing Sarcoma
Rare cancer most commonly diagnosed in children and teens between the ages of 10-19. Ewing sarcoma is usually identified in the bone, but can also grow in adjacent soft tissues. 

Selected publications by our Texas Children’s Hospital orthopedic surgery team:

  • Khan M, Pawel B, Meyer J and Dormans JP: "Hip pain in a 13-year-old-boy with a pelvic mass" (Ewings sarcoma of the pelvis).  Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Orthopaedic-Radiology-Pathology Conference CME Article, April 2003, Volume 409, Pages 332-341.
     
  • Lou J, Erol B, States L,  Pawel B, and Dormans JP: “Lower Leg Pain in a 17-year-old Boy”; Ewing Sarcoma of distal fibula.  Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 418:279-287, January 2004. MS# 02-611.
     
  • Dormans JP and Garg S:  “Rotationplasty for Ewing sarcoma of the distal femur”, The New England Journal  of Medicine, 351:e7, I03-0590, 2004.
     
  • Dormans JP, Ofluoglu O, Erol B Moroz L and Davidson RS:  “Reconstruction of intercalary defect with bone transport after resection or Ewing sarcoma” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 434:258-264, 2005.
     
  • Womer RB, West DC, Krailo MD,  Dickman PS, Pawel BR, Grier HE, Marcus K, Sailer S, Healey J, Dormans JP, Weiss AR. A randomized controlled trial of interval-compressed chemotherapy for the treatment of localized Ewing Sarcoma: A report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics.  2012 Nov; 20; 30 (33): 4148-54.

Fibrosarcoma of Bone
Rare malignant tumor derived from connective tissue. Fibrosarcomas most often occur at the ends of long bones and can cause damage or extension to adjacent soft tissue. Though most common in adults, adolescents can be affected by the adult form while infants may be diagnosed with a separate variant known as infantile or congenital fibrosarcoma. 


Giant Cell Tumor
Rare and benign, but locally aggressive tumor that commonly occurs near the end of long bones (especially around the knee). Giant Cell tumors can also be found in the upper extremity, pelvis, and lower back. Though generally affecting young to middle aged adults, this tumor can be seen across all age groups. 

Selected publications by our Texas Children’s Hospital orthopedic surgery team:

  • Gholve PA, Hosalkar HS, Kreiger PA, Dormans JP: Giant Cell Tumor of Tendon Sheath: Largest Single Series in Children. J Ped Ortho. 2007; 27 (1): 67-74.

Hemangioma (bone)
Benign lesion within bone that develops from vascular endothelial tissues (blood vessels). Hemangiomas are often seen on the skin as a “birthmark”, but when identified in bone tend to affect the skull or vertebral bodies of the spine. As they are benign and usually asymptomatic, hemangiomas of the bone are usually an incidental finding on x-ray.  


Leukemia
Cancer of the blood and bone marrow and the most common form of cancer in childhood. In Leukemia, cancer cells affect white blood cell production in the bone marrow causing rapid production of immature or abnormal cells. 


Lymphoma
Cancer found in the lymphatic system affecting a type of white blood cell (lymphocytes). The lymphatic system plays an important role in the immune system. Lymphoma is classified as either Hodgkin or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma depending on the specific lymphocytes involved, and can cause impaired immunity and tumor growth.

Selected publications by our Texas Children’s Hospital orthopedic surgery team:

  • Erol B, Siegel D, Huff D, States L, and Dormans JP: “Low Back Pain in a 13 y/o Girl”.  Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma of the Pelvis.  Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Number 413:323-331, August 2003.
     
  • Glotzbecker, M.P., Kersun, L.S., Choi, J.K., Wills, B.P., Schaffer, A.S., Dormans, J.P.:  Primary Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma of Bone in Children.   J Bone Joint Surg Am.,  Volume 88A(3):  583-594, March 2006.
     
  • Zhao XF, Young KH, Frank D, Goradia A, Glotzbecker MP, Pan W, Kersun LS, Leahey A, Dormans JP, Choi JK.  Pediatric primary bone lymphoma-diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of 10 cases. Am J Clin Pathol. 2007 Jan;127(1):47-54

Metastatic Cancer of Bone
In contrast to primary bone cancer (originating from the bone), cancers initially affecting other organs or systems of the body can eventually spread or metastasize to the bone. Because involvement of the bone is a potential finding in many different types of cancer, metastatic bone cancer is more common than primary bone cancer.


Non-ossifying Fibroma
Most common benign bone tumor in children, present in an estimated 30-40% of individuals under the age of 20. Non-ossifying Fibromas are comprised of fibrous tissue and typically occur in the lower extremity (especially in the ends of the bones forming the knee joint).


Osteoblastoma 
Rare generally benign tumor that often develops in the extremities and spine of adolescents and young adults. Osteoblastomas typically have a slow rate of growth, but can dissolve healthy bone replacing it with a weakened abnormal matrix called osteoid. 

Selected publications by our Texas Children’s Hospital orthopedic surgery team:

  • Tan V, and Dormans JP:   Extremity Osteoblastoma.  Contemporary Orthopaedics, Volume 29, Number 1, pg. 44- 48, July 1994.
     
  • Golant A, Erol B, Lou J, Kramer S, Russo P and Dormans JP: “Sternal pain in an 11-year-old-boy” (Osteoblastoma of the sternum). Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 421:307-313, April 2004. (MS# 02-612). 
     
  • Golant A, Lou J, Erol B, Gaynor JW, Low DW and Dormans JP: “Pediatric osteoblastoma of the sternum: A new surgical technique for reconstruction after removal. J Pediatr Orthop. 2004; 24(3):319-22
     
  • Arkader A, Dormans JP. Osteoblastoma in  the Skeletally Immature. In Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. Volume 28,Number 5, July/August 2008. Pgs 555-564.

Osteochondroma
Benign tumor comprised of bone and cartilage that typically forms an abnormal growth (exostosis) on the surfaces of bones near the growth plate. Usually identified as a single tumor, the presence of many osteochondromatosis may be suggestive of a genetic condition, such as Multiple Hereditary Exostosis.

Selected publications by our Texas Children’s Hospital orthopedic surgery team:

  • Cardelia M, Dormans JP, Drummond DS and Davidson RS:   Proximal Fibular Osteochondroma with Associated Peroneal Nerve Palsy.  The Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Volume 15, No. 5, pages 574-577, 1995.
     
  • Mahboubi S, Dormans JP and D’Angio G:   Malignant degeneration of radiation induced osteochondroma.  Skeletal Radiology 26:195-198, 1997.
     
  • Stieber JR, Pierz KA and Dormans JP:  “Multiple Hereditary Exostoses:  A current understanding of clinical and genetic advances.”  The University of Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Journal. Volume 14, pages 39-48, 2001.
     
  • Pierz K and Dormans JP:  Multiple Hereditary Osteochondromatosis.  In “Genetics and Childhood Disorders” symposium in Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Volume 401, pages 49-59, August 2002.
     
  • Deirmengian CA, Davidson RS, Horn D, Pierz K, Drummond DS and Dormans JP:  The management of proximal fibular osteochondromas with associated Peroneal nerve involvement.  J Bone Joint Surg, March 2002.
     
  • Stieber J and Dormans JP: “Manifestations of hereditary multiple exostoses”, The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, volume 13, number 2, pages 110-120, 2005. 
     
  • Bakhshi H, Kushare I, Murphy MO, Gaynor JW, Dormans JP. Costal Osteochondroma in Children: A case series of surgical management. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 2014 Oct-Nov; 34(7): p. 733-7.

Osteoid Osteoma
Benign tumor that usually develops in the long bones of the body (thigh and leg). An osteoid osteoma can result in abnormal bone growth and most frequently affects individuals between the ages of 4 and 25 years old.

Selected publications by our Texas Children’s Hospital orthopedic surgery team:

  • Garg S, Hosalkar H and Dormans JP:  Presence of scoliosis as an aid to diagnosis of osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma in children, Spine, May, 2003.
     
  • Hosalkar HS, Garg S, Moroz L, Pollack A and Dormans JP:   “Diagnostic accuracy of MRI versus CT Imaging for osteoid osteoma in children”.  Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Number 433:171-177, 2005.

Osteosarcoma
Most common primary bone cancer (originating from bone). Osteosarcoma typically forms in the growth regions of bones in the upper and lower extremities. Although osteosarcoma can occur at any age, it is most prevalent in teenagers. 

Selected publications by our Texas Children’s Hospital orthopedic surgery team:

  • Anbari KK, Ierardi-Curto LA, Silber JS, Asada N, Spinner N, Zackai EH, Belasco J and Dormans JP: Two primary osteosarcomas in a patient with Rothmund Thompson Syndrome: Clin Orthop. 2000 Sep;(378):213-23
     
  • Erol B, Lou J, States L, Pawel B and Dormans JP: “Knee Pain in a 13-Year-Old Boy”. Osteosarcoma of the proximal fibula.  Orthopaedic-Radiology-Pathology Section, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 406:317-327, January 2003.
     
  • Greenbaum J, Lou J, Erol B, Mahboubi S, Reilly A, Russo P and Dormans JP: Intravascular extension of a primary pelvic osteosarcoma complicating limb salvage surgery in a child.  J Bone Joint Surg, May 2003.
     
  • Marchese VG, Ogle S, Womer RB, Dormans JP, Ginsberg JP:  An Examination of Outcome Measures to Assess Functional Mobility in Childhood Survivors of Osteosarcoma.  Pediatric Blood Cancer.  2004; 42(1): 41-45.
     
  • Hubert DM, Low DW, Serletti JM, Chang B, Dormans JP. Fibula free flap reconstruction of the pelvis in children after limb-sparing internal hemipelvectomy for bone sarcoma. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010 Jan;125(1):195-200

Periosteal Chondromas
Benign tumor of cartilage that occurs on the surface of bone involving the periosteum (a connective tissue layer that envelopes bone). Most common in patients less than 30 years old, periosteal chondromas are typically slow growing but can erode underlying bone over time. 

Selected publications by our Texas Children’s Hospital orthopedic surgery team:

  • Vives M, Dormans JP, and Conard K: Periosteal Chondroma: Orthopaedic Implications. Contemporary Orthopaedics, Volume 30, Number 3, Pgs. 217-222, March 1995. 

Soft Tissue Tumors


Angiosarcoma
Malignant cancer of endothelial cells (forming the lining of blood vessels) that can occur throughout the body including the soft tissue. Angiosarcomas are very rare in pediatric patients and when diagnosed are usually identified in the chest or head and neck regions. 


Calicifying Aponeurotic Fibroma
Rare benign soft tissue tumor that can present in children and young adults. This growth is comprised of fibrous tissue and tends to form nodules in the distal extremities (hands and feet).


Desmoid Tumors (Aggressive Fibromatoses)
Rare, locally aggressive tumor comprised of fibrous connective tissue that can invade adjacent organs and structures. Desmoid tumors can develop almost anywhere in the body and have a tendency to recur even after surgical resection.


Epithelioid Sarcoma
Rare malignant soft tissue tumor that is most frequent in the hands and wrists of adolescents and young adults. Despite being a slow-growing tumor, it can have high rates of metastasis and recurrence.


Glomus Tumor
Rare benign tumor of the glomus body, which is a structure important in temperature regulation. Glomus tumors typically arise within the nail bed, but they may also be identified in other bony or soft tissue portions of the distal extremities (hands and feet).


Lipomas
This growth of fat cells is the most common benign soft tissue tumor and can be found just beneath the skin or within and around muscles. Though typically identified in adults, lipomas can occur across all age groups.

Selected publications by our Texas Children’s Hospital orthopedic surgery team:

  • Schaffer A, Erol B,  States L, Pawel B and Dormans JP: “Calf Mass in a 2-year-Old Boy".  Intramuscular lipoma of calf.  Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 417:333- 340, December 2003.
     
  • Schaffer A, Erol B, States L, Pawel B, and Dormans JP: “Thigh Mass in a 6-year-old Girl” Intramuscular lipoma of thigh. (MS# 3651).  Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Number 426:274-280, 2004.

Liposarcoma
Malignant tumor of fat cells that tends to form in the shoulder, lower extremities, or abdominal/pelvic region. Though the second most common soft tissue cancer in adults, the incidence of liposarcoma in children is relatively rare.


Neuroblastoma
Classification of tumors originating from primitive / immature sympathetic nervous system tissue. Due to the location of the sympathetic nervous system, neuroblastomas tend to develop in the adrenal glands, but can also affect regions near the spine or elsewhere in the chest and abdomen. This tumor is most common in children less than five years old. 

Selected publications by our Texas Children’s Hospital orthopedic surgery team:

  • Kang T, Dormans JP, Maris J, Carpentieri D, Pawel B and Adamson PC:  “Congenital neuroblastoma arising in the deltoid muscle.” (JHPO03089),  Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 26(2):101-103, February 2004.  

Neurofibroma
Benign tumor of (Schwann) cells involving the nerve sheaths in the peripheral nervous system. A majority of neurofibromas are isolated findings, however they can also be associated with the genetic disorder Neurofibromatosis type 1.

Selected publications by our Texas Children’s Hospital orthopedic surgery team:

  • Speigel D, Dormans JP, Mathur S, Asada N, Himmelstein B, Meyer J and Womer R: Aggressive fibromatosis from infancy to adolescence.  The Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, 19:776-784, 1999.
     
  • Dormans JP, Speigel D, Meyer J, Asada N, Alman B, Pill SG, Himmelstein B and Womer R:  Fibromatoses in childhood:  The desmoid/fibromatoses complex (Overview plus).  Medical and Pediatric Oncology (Wiley-Liss, Inc., Volume 37(2):  126-131, 2001.
     
  • Garg S, Hosalkar H and Dormans JP:  “Quadriplegia in a 10 year-old boy due to multiple cervical neurofibromas.” (MS number 03125), Spine, Volume 28, Number17, September 1, 2003, E339.

Nodular Fasciitis
Benign, but rapidly growing mass of fibroblasts (cells that make connective tissue) that can form lesions in the fascia (connective tissue that forms layers between or around muscles and soft tissue). This condition most commonly involves the forearm, trunk, or lower extremities.


Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis
Benign mass resulting from the thickening and overgrowth of synovium. Synovium is a thin connective tissue layer that lines the surfaces of some joints and tendons producing a lubricating synovial fluid. Overgrowth can cause progressive damage and arthritis. 


Plantar Fibromatosis (Lederhosen)
Thickening and abnormal growth of the plantar fascia (connective tissue on the soles of feet). Plantar fibromatosis tends to affect adult patients, but may occur in infants and children. 


Rhabdomyosarcoma
Rare soft tissue cancer usually arising in skeletal muscle. Rhabdomyosarcomas can occur throughout the body, but are most commonly identified in the head and neck region.


Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Cancer that arises from soft tissue (muscle, blood vessels, fat, tendons, joint tissue, nerves, lymphatic vessels). Sarcomas can be found throughout the body, but are most common in the lower extremity. 


Synovial Chondromatosis
Abnormal growth of synovium (thin connective tissue found in joints and on tendons) that can produce cartilage nodules. These nodules are at risk of breaking off within the joint space, forming loose bodies space causing painful damage and arthritis. 


Synovial Sarcoma
Rare malignant tumor of cells resembling synovium (thin connective tissue found on the surface of joints and tendons). These tumors can be found in any part of the body, but most frequently begin in the extremities. It is most common among teenagers and young adults.


Other


Fibrous Dysplasia
Disorder of irregular bone formation in which normal bone is replaced by a lesion of fibrous connective tissue. Fibrous dysplasia can affect single (monostotic) or multiple bones (polyostotic fibrous dysplasia). McCune-Albright is a genetic syndrome characterized by skin pigmentation and hormonal (endocrine) abnormalities that also manifests with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. 

Selected publications by our Texas Children’s Hospital orthopedic surgery team:

  • Kushare I, Colo D, Bakhshi H, Dormans JP. Fibrous Dysplasia of the Proximal Femur: Surgical management and Outcomes. Journal of Children’s Orthopedics. 2014. 8(6): 505-511

Heterotopic Ossification
Condition in which bone forms in an abnormal location (usually in the soft tissue). Heterotopic ossification most commonly occurs following traumatic or neurological (spinal cord) injury. Myositis Ossificans is an extremely rare genetic condition in which multiple, recurrent lesions of heterotopic ossification form in the soft tissue.

Selected publications by our Texas Children’s Hospital orthopedic surgery team:

  • Hosalkar HS, Flynn J and Dormans JP: Heterotopic Ossification. Medical and Pediatric Oncology, April 2003.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis
Rare disorder of immune cells (histiocytes and Langerhans cells) that most commonly affects children between the ages of one and three. This condition can cause single or multiple bone lesions and typically presents in the skull, thigh, spine, rib or arm in children. An Eosinophilic granuloma (formerly known as histiocytosis X) is a benign subtype of Langerhans cell histiocytosis that usually forms a localized bone lesion. 

Selected publications by our Texas Children’s Hospital orthopedic surgery team:

  • Meyer JS, Harty MP, Mahboubi S, Heyman RB, Zimmerman RA, Womer RB, Dormans JP and D’Angio GJ:   Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (Histiocytosis X):  Presentation and Evolution of Radiographic Findings with Clinical Correlation. RadioGraphics 15(5):  1135-1146, September 1995.  
     
  • Levine SE, Dormans JP, Corcoran TA, Meyer JS, Corcoran TA: “Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the spine in children.” Clin Orthop. 1996 Feb;(323):288-93  
     
  • Rihn J, Carpentieri D, and Dormans JP:  “Left arm pain in a 2-year 7-month old girl”.  (Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis). Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Orthopaedic-Radiology-Pathology Conference CME Article, April 2003, Volume 409, Pages 342-349.
     
  • Garg S, Mehta S and Dormans JP:  “An atypical presentation of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the cervical spine in a child.” Spine (online publication), Volume 28,     Number 21, E445, November 1,2003.
     
  • Tamai J, Erol B, Lo SS, Pawel B, Meyer J, and Dormans JP: “Leg Pain in an 8-Year-Old Boy”. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of tibia.Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 417:321- 332, December 2003.
     
  • Garg S, Mehta S and Dormans JP: “Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the spine in children. Long-term follow-up.” The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 86A(8): 1740-1750, August 2004.
     
  • Greenberg JS, Hosalkar HS, Wells L, Dormans JP: Isolated Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the T12 Vertebra in an Adolescent. Amer J Orthop. 2007: 36(2): E21-E24
     
  • Garg S, Hosalkar H, Dormans JP.  Autofusion of the Cervical Spine in 2 Children Following Open Biopsy of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis.  Am J Orthop.  2007; 36(8): E124-E126.
     
  • Dormans, JP, Arkader, A, Hosalkar, H, Goltzbecker, M. “Primary Musculoskeletal Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis In Children- An Analysis Over a 3-Decade Period.” Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics.  The Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. Volume 29, Number 2, March 2009.

Osteofibrous Dysplasia
Benign tumor that most commonly develops in the tibia (shin) of children and individuals less than 20 years old. Growth of the tumor will usually stabilize once the child has reached maturity and the bone is no longer elongating. 


Paget's Disease (Juvenile form)
Condition of disordered bone growth in which bones are excessively thick and enlarged. Paget’s disease can affect the entire skeleton and can notably cause hearing loss due to skull growth and abnormal spine curvature. Patients are at increased risk of fracture because of the abnormal composition and structure of their bone.


Tumoral Calcinosis
Rare often familial condition in which abnormal masses and depositions of calcification form in the soft-tissue (usually around joints).